Kolkata is considered the rugby capital of India and gave his name to the oldest tournament, the Calcutta Cup. The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club, CC&FC, founded in 1792 is the oldest surviving rugby club in the world outside UK and is the generic name by which they are currently understood two team sports with their variants, in the UK at the end of the nineteenth century the 15 rugby or rugby union, played between two teams of 15 players each, and the 13 rugby or rugby league, with 13 items per team. Beyond the differences in the number of players, the two disciplines have different regulations and are considered independent of each other.
Rugby 15 is practiced at international level in much of the world in the United Kingdom , the countries of the former British Empire Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, South Africa and in France, Argentina, Romania and former Soviet Union collecting later also in Japan, India, Morocco, Kenya, Namibia and in several other nations of Oceania and Asia. The history of the rugby itself is unified until 1895, the year of the professional division of rugby to 13 since it refers more properly to rugby at 15 or 13, although in a number of countries in which the rules of rugby to 13 is unknown or very little practiced.
Ancient forms of ball games have always existed in every corner of the world: among these, the best known are the Episkyros greek, harpastum Roman Empire, the football historian Florence and the soule French. Originally the term English football , contrary to what you think, did not indicate necessarily games in which it was planned to kick the ball, but all those practiced by artisans and peasants walk to play at ball on foot , from which the noun modern football, unlike the nobles who used horses for their pastimes. Over the centuries, the various football were introduced in many public schools of England with regulations therefore different both with regard to the shape of the ball and how to handle it or kick it, both the number of players in the field.
Legend attributes to William Webb Ellis, a student of the town of Rugby , the invention of the homonymous game in 1823, during a football game played with rules not yet standardized, William Webb Ellis picked up the ball with his hands and began to run towards the opponent's goal line and then crush it over the end line screaming META. This gesture was surprised and intrigued many people, who began to practice this sport. In honor of William Webb Ellis is still present a bronze statue in front of the school where he was invented the great sport of rugby.
The lack of uniformity of rules between the different ways of playing football before causing a big split: in 1863 the representatives of a group of English clubs decided to take the Cambridge Rules, amended in part, and founded the Football Association , thus giving rise to what will be known as Association Football or soccer. The club who kept the Laws of Rugby founded, in turn, in 1871, its official body, the Rugby Football Union .
The second separation occurred within the Rugby Football Union in 1895 when, due to problems of social and economic nature, some clubs in the north of England formed the Northern Rugby Football Union, which later became the Rugby Football League , which soon began to make profound changes to the rules, until you get to a version of rugby football decidedly different from the one run by the RFU.
Since the official versions of rugby were at that point two, it became necessary to distinguish them in the name: the rugby union was run by the RFU and rugby league governed by the RFL.