At the stroke of midnight between 14 and 15 August were born India, the day of Independence from the British. Independence Day is a holiday and a time of great national pride with banks, government offices and many shops remain closed. Schools, colleges and offices officially hoist the flag, singing the national anthem, followed by parades and cultural programs.
The first organized movement was born in Bengal, but later entered the political scene in the form of a mass movement that went to form the Indian National Congress INC, with prominent leaders moderates who sought only their basic rights in favor of citizens humble and helpless and the peasant class.
The beginning of 1900 saw a more radical approach towards political independence proposed by leaders such as the Lal Bal Pal and Sri Aurobindo. In the first decade of the twentieth century became even light the revolutionary movement for Indian independence which resulted in the failed Indo-German Pact during the First World War.
The last stages of the struggle for freedom took place in the 1920s that saw the Congress, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, non-violence and adopt policies of many campaigns of civil resistance. Personalities like Subhas Chandra Bose, later came to adopt a military approach to the movement, and others like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who along with political freedom demanded economic freedom for peasants and all the toiling masses of the country.
The Second World War saw the peak of movements such as the Movement for the Liberation of India led by Gandhi, the Indian National Army (INA) led by Subhas Chandra Bose and the Khaksar Movement of Allama Mashriqi. These movements led to the formation of domains of India and Pakistan in 1947, India remained the domain of the Crown until 26 January 1950 when it adopted its constitution and proclaimed the Republic, and Pakistan proclaimed itself the Republic in 1956 In 1971, the outbreak of the war Pakistani civilian who subsequently led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 which saw the fragmentation of East Pakistan in the nation of Bangladesh .
The Indian independence movement was a mass movement that included various sections of the society of the time. He has also undergone a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a political vision of a secular , democratic and republican.
After the 1930s, the movement took a direction towards socialism, due to the increased influence of the left wing of the movement and the growth of the Communist Party of India. The independence was granted by the British with a year earlier due to growing tensions between Hindus and Muslims that threatened the governance of the colony. Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the peace movement for liberation fasted in Calcutta in an attempt to quell the violence.
Gandhi did not take part in the festivities with the rest of India, but mourned in solitude in the city of Calcutta. The partition of India will cause a mass exodus of about 17 million people from one state to another with violent clashes between Muslims and Hindus which will lead to more than 500,000 deaths. On 1 September 1947, in Calcutta, fasted in an attempt to stem the tide of madness and violence, failing to stop the atrocities in four days and then continues to strive to stop the violence by fabricating a dialogue with the leaders of the two communities religious .
On August 14 and August 15, 1947, in the partition of India, born two sovereign states, the sovereignty of Pakistan later Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Union of India later Republic of India after the United Kingdom guaranteed the independence of British India. In particular, the term refers to the partition of the Bengal province of British India between the Pakistani state of East Bengal now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal as well as to the partition of the region of Punjab of British India in the Punjab province of the State of West Pakistan and the Indian state of Punjab.
The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in the war of liberation of Bangladesh in 1971 is not covered by the term partition of India; as they are not the previous separations of Ceylon now Sri Lanka and Burma now Myanmar by the administration of British India.
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide spectrum of political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first to the British East India Company and then the British Raj authorities present in some parts of the South Asia. The term incorporates various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of non-violent groups and militant for India's independence.