Apartment is defined as the minimum space architectural composed of one or more environments and systematically linked together independent and such as to enable the function of dwelling. The unit thus corresponds to a single dwelling, which may also correspond to the concept more anthropological home. In all primitive cultures unit was founded in prehistoric times, it is the first element that goes to make up the built environment, that environment that is equipped man in modification of the natural environment, to make better their quality of life and optimize the limit of the technological possibilities of the various periods of its activities.
His birth corresponds with the hut and then with the farmhouse , which will continue to exist until the contemporary era alongside all other types of housing units gradually. The latter is added in the first period of history the fortified house or palace of age and Mycenaean civilization , or the building of origin and the Minoan civilization . With the first birth of urbanism in Rome you have the popular unit of islet cells , blocks of apartments for rent, as opposed to villas in the countryside or in the city.
You will then arrive at the castle and the tower houses the Middle Ages, the villas and the palaces Renaissance, different expressions of the residence of nobility, bourgeois or merchant of various ages.
With the industrial revolution, which first developed in England, was born an urbanism increasingly massive and build housing units for very low level workers health and hygiene in neighborhoods so-called slums. The attempt to overcome the devastating and chaotic urbanization of the city through the rational rules leads to the emergence of urban contemporary, and the design of most human dwellings with the houses of apartments.
The Modern Movement creates the concept of housing unit that is not only architectural also sociological , taking up the concept of unity as residence apartments, townhouses, etc. and not as a representation villa, castle, mansion. This is how the residential neighborhoods of the modern era till the Unitè Habitation of Le Corbusier, most complete expression of this concept. Here unit is the primary element of a well-defined set that bound to the primary common services, goes to make a part of a city neighborhood.
Mainly to the XX century belong Finally the housing units tourist like beach houses, houses in the mountains, the residence hotel.