Every year, November 20, we celebrate the Day of the International Rights of the Child, which commemorates the anniversary of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, the most organic framework for all initiatives in defense of children's rights approved in 1989 by the General Assembly of the United Nations and recognized in 190 countries worldwide.
During the same day we celebrate the National Day for the Rights of the Child. On this occasion, UNICEF the United Nations Fund for Children, world's leading organization for the protection of the rights and living conditions of children and adolescents has launched the campaign.
The United Nations General Assembly in 1954 urged all countries to establish a Universal Childrens Day to be celebrated as a day promotes understanding for children and activities for their well being in the world. But despite the global consensus on the importance of children, today, in addition to their involvement in the wars and in every conflict situation, but also their health and life expectancy are under attack.
According to UN figures 70% of the approximately 11 million children who die each year lose their lives due to six factors: diarrhea, malaria, neonatal infection, pneumonia, premature birth or anoxia lack of oxygen during birth. Factors are largely preventable with minimal expense. A large percentage of these deaths occur mostly in developing countries an Ethiopian child is 30 times more likely to die before its fifth birthday of a child residing in Western Europe.
The primacy of neonatal mortality is disputed between the central and southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa: the first has the highest absolute number of deaths in the second recording the highest percentages. It is estimated that the number of children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV AIDS will reach 25 million by the end of this decade, 18 million of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This situation, which is accompanied by only modest progress in the fight against malaria, a comprehensive framework for child survival is always at risk.
On the occasion of the International Day of the Child, Save the Children has announced the relationship Born Equal, according to which the inequality between rich and poor children in the world grew by 35% with serious consequences on health, survival and access to education. In some countries the gap between rich and poor children has nearly tripled in the last twenty years, as in the case of Peru, where it increased by 179%. The other less virtuous countries are Bolivia (+ 170%), Colombia (87%), Cameroon (+ 84%) and Ghana (+ 78%).
The International Day for the Rights of the Child , the Convention on the Rights of the Child is an important tool for the promotion and protection of child rights. The date of 20 November was chosen in memory of the day when the UN General Assembly adopted after a Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1959 the largest and most modern Convention on the Rights of the Child which, after being approved by the General Assembly 20 November 1989, entered into force on 2 September 1990 expresses a broad consensus about what are the obligations of States and the international community towards children, codifying international standards applicable to children. All countries of the world except Somalia and the United States have ratified this Convention. Today, 193 States Parties to the Convention, a number that exceeds that of UN member states.
The protection of children is a priority for the political and social forces of our country, especially in the current economic recession that sees them more exposed to abandonment, poverty and at risk of social exclusion. Investing in children and adolescents to overcome the crisis. Growing together with children and adolescents makes great is the message that we wanted for our first campaign. Its important fact that everyone understands that, even in times of economic crisis, investments in policies and interventions for children and adolescents are needed to change the fate of our country and to make competitive again in the coming years.
Children are the most affected by a distance that continues to grow inexorably between the haves and have-nots. The inequality must be fought relentlessly if we want to give all children an equal opportunity to life and development, so that they can benefit from the huge strides made progress on a global level.