Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. Its duties consisted in the control of the constitutionality of laws passed by Parliament, in checking the compatibility of the laws and regulations of the State with respect to the statute and limited their effectiveness in the territory, as well as in criminal proceedings for crimes committed in the exercise of their duties.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest organ judicial review of India. Provided by the Constitution, it is at the same time a federal court, the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of Appeals of the country. The first meeting was held January 28, 1950 and since then have been expressed 24,000 decisions. The Court consists of a Chief Justice and 30 judges assistants, all appointed by the President, in consultation with the Court. The judges shall hold office until the age of 65.
India has three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 21 members of the High Court, and a large number of judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and disputes between states and the Centre and appellate cases in the High Court. It is independent from any other power and can dissolve state governments, as well as to declare unconstitutional the laws of the various states. The role as the final interpreter of the Constitution is one of the most important functions of the Supreme Court.