Rowing is a sport of speed and strength that uses boats from extremely slender form, in which the athletes sit on furniture seats called trolleys, sliding or fixed geared towards the stern , and use the oars to move the boat. This sport can be practiced on rivers, lakes or the sea. The main differences in the boats used for rowing are given by the number of components of crew, by the number of oars operated by each rower, which may be one peak or two torque and the presence or less than a helmsman is referred to as with and without. In the so-called long boats that is, with more than a rowing machine is very important figure in the stroke seat that is the one who sits on the first carriage from the stern. His job is to give the right rhythm (ratio between past and recovery to the boat and choose a proper race strategy.
The Olympic rowing boats are long and narrow, in order to reduce the resistance offered by the water. This shape makes them unstable and subject to sudden reversals, but with the experience and practice you learn not topple over. Being able to keep in balance the boat, while putting maximum effort in rowing is an essential skill for rowing. The vessels, originally constructed in wood , are now manufactured in carbon fiber , while the competition boats are now almost all in composite materials . This evolution takes place for boats to get faster and faster and hydrodynamic because in some competitions a few seconds or even less can be decisive for the placement of the athlete.
Rowers practice this sport at an amateur level or racing. There are several types of competitions in rowing. The races are held in the spring and summer and are generally speed races. The distance regulation on which competitions are held is 2,000 meters, races take place also on the 1000 and 1500 meters for the youth categories. There are also other types of races, known as "Gran fund", whose distance is generally between 6,000 and 7,000 meters.
The boats can make starts flying if not taken or without if required for the stern to the street, the first crew to cut the finish line is the winner. Generally the racing lets you compete with up to eight boats each has its own lane bordered by the other, but the official international competitions are held on six-lane, which is why the race is divided into a series of batteries with any recoveries, semi-finals and a final.
There is another type of racing that usually takes place from autumn to spring depending on local conditions. The boats depart moving one at a time, at intervals of 10-20 seconds, and compete against time. The distances can vary from 2,000 feet to over 12,000.
A third type of race that bumps, takes place at Oxford and Cambridge . In these races the boats depart lined up along the river at regular intervals, and depart at the same time. The purpose of the competition is to get the boat moving ahead, without being joined by the post back. If a team reaches what lies ahead, he gets a bump, both crews approach a bank and no longer take part in the race.
However, the next day, the crews that have earned the bump , depart before those who have been achieved. This type of racing takes place over a period of several days, and the positions at the end of the last race are used to determine the starting order of the first day of competition the following year. Oxford and Cambridge dispute these races twice a year, for the crews of the respective college. There are also bumps the city, open to all crews. This type of race is extremely rare outside of the UK.
Rowing is atypical with respect to the effort required to competitors. The standard race distance of 2,000 meters is long enough to require qualities of strength, but short enough typically from 5'30 "to 8'00" it looks like a speed race. This means that rowers have a power among the highest of all sports. At the same time the movements required by this sport compress the lungs of athletes, limiting the amount of oxygen available. This requires that the rowing machine suitable breathing to the rhythm of rowing, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per rowing, unlike other sports, such as cycling, where the athlete can breathe freely.