On his return he undertakes in political activity with the national movement of Bengal, and then especially in the educational and founded an experimental school at Santiniketan. The range of his interests is vast: it is a musician he himself wrote the music of his poems, thinker, playwright, novelist in later years will approach to painting. The years between 1907 and 1913 are crucial for Tagore.
Work the poems that compose the collection Gitanjali and that translated into English while writing Tagore in Bengali means almost all its production earned him the Nobel Prize in 1913. In 1915, Gandhi met for the first time in which, despite political differences, tightens deep and lasting friendship.
His commitment to cultural and educational center, meanwhile, intensified in 1921 and he founded the University of Visva Bharati, driven by the need for a meeting ground between Eastern and Western culture, he traveled all over the world. In the last years of his life, suffering from a serious illness, he retired to Santiniketan, where he devoted himself entirely to literary activity. The production of this period is vast, and includes, in addition to several collections of poetry, plays, short stories, reflections, aphorisms and essays of literary criticism. He died in his birthplace of Jorasanko August 7, 1941.